Vitamin D Associated Diseases

Vitamin D deficiencies can cause or contribute to diseases such as colorectal and prostate cancers, high blood pressure, and kidney and heart diseases

Nearly every body tissue has receptors for Vitamin D, among them the intestines, brain, heart, skin, sex organs, breasts and lymphocytes as well as the placenta.  The active Vitamin D hormone is known to influence the expression of more than 200 genes (Brody, 2012).  Vitamin D deficiencies can cause or contribute to diseases such as colorectal and prostate cancers, high blood pressure, and kidney and heart diseases, which affect black Americans at higher rates than whites.

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The renowned Mayo Clinic (2012) has listed several diseases that can be impacted by the use of Vitamin D including:  Familial hypophosphatemia (low levels of phosphate in blood); Fanconi syndrome-related hypophosphatemia (defect in the proximal tubules of the kidney); hyperparathyroidism (overactive thyroid due to low Vitamin D levels); hypocalcemia due to hyperparathyroidism; osteomalacia (adult rickets); psoriasis (Vitamin D analogs); and rickets.

The Mayo Clinic (2012) has also indentified various diseases associated with Vitamin D deficiency that can be treated with Vitamin D supplementation.  Some of these diseases include bone loss, osteoarthritis, muscle weakness/pain, osteoporosis (cystic fibrosis patients), renal and hepatic osteodystrophy, autoimmune diseases, multiple sclerosis, cancer prevention (breast, colorectal, prostate, other), cognitive issues, mood disorders, kidney disease (chronic), hyperlipidemia, hypertension, immunomodulation, asthma and other respiratory concerns, diabetes, skin conditions, skin pigmentation disorders, tooth retention, gastrointestinal issues and cardiovascular disease.

References

  • Brody, J. (2102).  Reasons that Vitamin D May Matter.  New York Times, March 12.
  • Clarke B. (2011). Medical Edge Newspaper Column. Mayo Clinic.
  • Crissey S, Ange K, Jacobsen K, Slifka K, Bowen P, Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M, Langman C, Sadler W and Kahn S.  (2003). Serum concentrations of lipids, vitamin D metabolites, retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at four zoos. The Journal of nutrition 133 (1): 160–6.
  • Heaney R. (2003). Long latency deficiency disease: insights from calcium and vitamin D. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 78:912-919.
  • Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. (2010). Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
  • Jones G. (2008). Pharmacokinetics of vitamin D toxicity. Am J Clin Nutr. 88:582S-6S.
  • NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin D. (2009).
  • Vitamin D and Calcium: Updated Dietary Reference Intakes. Nutrition and Healthy Eating. Health Canada.
  • Mayo Clinic. (2012). Vitamin D.  Mayo Clinic website. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/vitamin-d/NS_patient-vitamind
  • Ross A, Manson J, Abrams S, Aloia J, Brannon P, Clinton S, Durazo-Arvizu R, Gallagher J, Gallo R, Jones G, Kovacs C, Mayne S, Rosen C and Shapses S. (2011). The 2011 Report on Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine: What Clinicians Need to Know. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 96 (1): 53–8. doi:10.1210/jc.2010-2704.
  • Sarubin F and Thomson C. (2007). The Health Professional's Guide to Popular Dietary Supplements. 3rd ed. Chicago, IL: American Dietetic Association.
  • Vieth R. (2006). Critique of the considerations for establishing the tolerable upper intake level for vitamin D: critical need for revision upwards. J Nutr. Apr; 136 (4): 1117-22.
  • Vieth R. (1999). Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety. Am J Clin Nutr. May; 69 (5): 842-56.
  • Wolf G. (2004). The discovery of vitamin D: the contribution of Adolf Windaus. J Nutr 134 (6): 1299–302.
  • Wolpowitz D and Gilchrest B. (2006). The vitamin D questions: how much do you need and how should you get it? J Am Acad Dermatol. 54:301-17.